EMDR - eye movement desensitization & reprocessing
What is EMDR? EMDR   stands   for   "Eye   Movement   Desensitization   and   Reprocessing"   and   was   discovered between   1987   and   1989   by   the   American   Psychologist   Dr.   Francine   Shapiro   developed   for   the treatment    of    trauma.    She    found    out    that    rapid    (horizontal)    eye    movement    triggers    the processing    of    memory    in    the    brain.    What    sounds    simple    at    first    is    a    complex    and comprehensive    Psychotherapy    method,    which    requires    several    years    of    training,    and    to which currently only recognized Psychotherapists are admitted. When   I   first   heard   of   the   incredible   healing   effects   of   EMDR   ( example   #1 ,   #2 )   I   became suspicious   and   thought   it   was   unserious   and   unscientific.   Meanwhile,   I   am   convinced   that EMDR   is   a   very   effective   therapy   method   and   a   powerful   tool   to   speed   up   Psychotherapeutic processes. It works with most people. History In   1987,   Shapiro   accidentally   discovered   the   effects   of   eye   movements.   She   had   just   received a   difficult   diagnosis   herself   and   went   for   a   walk   in   the   hospital   park   to   digest   the   news.   She moved    her    eyes    (randomly)    quickly    back    and    forth    and    ten    minutes    later,    her    distress suddenly   had   disappeared.   Shapiro   was   so   fascinated   by   this   event,   that   she   developed EMDR   in   the   following   years.   Later,   Shapiro   and   colleagues   found   that   the   effect   can   not   be caused   solely   by   eye   movements,   but   rather   by   bilateral   stimulation .   But   by   that   time,   the name   EMDR   has   already   been   established   and   so   that   they   decided   to   keep   it.   When   you   do EMDR   today,   you   have   a   choice   to   do   it   using   eye   movements,   alternating   sounds   (with headphones)    or    with    a    vibrating    device    ("EMDR    Buzzies"with    alternating    vibrations,    see picture). How does it work? Interestingly, the efficacy is well documented, but it is not completely understood how and why EMDR works. There are, however, some hypotheses: The bilateral stimulation boosts the processing of memories, similar to REM sleep EMDR triggers an orientation reaction, leading directly to desensitization and processing of traumatic memory EMDR promotes bilateral data exchange between the two sides of the brain so that "stuck" memories can be processed. EMDR “deblocks” the Information processing system in the central nervous system (CNS). Due to the sensory overload during a traumatic situation, this system is thought to be partially blocked with PTSD patients. Slow vs. fast stimulation With   slow   stimulation,   existing   phenomena   are   intensified   or   anchored.   Note   that   these effects   are   only   temporary.   This   technique   will   be   used   during   a   first   ‘trial   session’   (so   called absorption   technique )   or   at   the   conclusion   of   a   successful   EMDR   session.   Fast   stimulation, however,   is   used   for   the   actual   EMDR   treatment.   Memories   are   processd   deeply   and   the effects are permanent. Effectiveness The   EMDR   method   has   been   accepted   as   an   effective   and   time-efficient   treatment   for   post- traumatic   stress   disorder.   By   now,   almost   every   civilized   country   has   its   own   EMDR   training center.   Furthermore,   EMDR   is   being   adapted   successfully   for   other   Psychiatric   disorders.   In the   30   years   of   its   existence,   EMDR   has   become   the   therapeutic   method   with   the   most controlled   and   uncontrolled   therapeutic   trials   for   the   treatment   of   PTSD.   [ Current   state   of EMDR   research ]   The   effects   are   persistent   and   stand   out   clearly   from   placebo   effects.   A person   with   a   single   trauma   (and   no   other   preconditions)   might   only   need   a   few   sessions   (10 or   so)   of   EMDR   treatment   until   they   feel   significantly   better.   For   a   person   suffering   from   early or   repeated   traumatization,   it   will   take   takes   substantially   longer.   The   period   of   stabilization (before you can confront any trauma at all) might take weeks to years. Which problems can EMDR be used for? Monotrauma (single traumatic event) such as accidents, catastrophic events Complex   trauma   (early   or   repeated   traumatization)   such   as   physical,   emotional   and sexual abuse, war experiences, etc. Attachment issues / Developmental Trauma Depression Anxiety, panic attacks, phobia ADHD Asperger syndrome Obsessive-compulsive disorder Mourning processes What does an EMDR treatment look like? The    treatement    can    be    divided    in    8    phases.    In    the    best    case    scenario,    you    can    start processing   the   difficult   memories   after   a   few   sessions.   These   are   the   8   phases   which   every EMDR treatment should contain: 1. Thorough medical history - Especially stressful or traumatic events - Diagnosis, possibly trauma assessment - Indication und treatment plan 2. Preparation - this phase might take between a few sessions and years! - In-depth information about the treatment - Checking / acquiring strategies for emotion regulation - Acquiring stabilizing techniques, getting in touch with   your body an feelings - Trial session with positive memories (so called  Absorption-technique), with slow bilateral stmulation 3. Assessment of one chosen memory    - Image, thoughts, feelings, distress level, body  sensations 4. Desensitization / Reprossessing   - with fast bilateral stimulation, until distress is gone 5. Installation of positive thoughts / body sensations with slow bilateral stimulation 6. Body scan 7.   Closure   The   patient   must   be   returned   to   a   state   of   equilibrium   at   the   end   of   each   session, regardless of whether reprocessing is complete.  8. Reevaluation and treatment planning in the following session The actual processing of the memories takes place in a 60-90 minute session (phases 3-7). Note :   Instead   of   the   tiring   eye   movements,   EMDR   can   be   performed   using   a   vibrating   device (EMDR ”buzzies”, see picture above). Preconditions for a EMDR treatment Patient should ideally be in a relatively stable phase of life, meaning: currently no profound life events such as change of residence, final exam, separation / divorce, pregnancy, child birth, withdrawal treatment, etc. Sufficient self-regulation mechanisms (since treatment is performed on an outpatient basis), also ability to allow stressful feelings Ongoing abuse relationship ADHD patients: medication Exclusion criteria: psychosis, epilepsy, acute suicidality, permanent drug use, permanent use of benzodiazepines Links and literature Great animation by the National Center for PTSD - Video (2.54) Dr. Leeds explains how EMDR works  Video (4.43) Interview with Francine Shapiro Video (8.20) Francine Shapiro explains EMDR Video (3.59) Historic document of Francine Shapiro talking about her discovery Old video (2.54) Old video (2.51) Good article pdf  FAQ, more scientific Text  FAQ, less scientific Text Overview current research
Practice for psychotherapy & counseling Dr. Phil Stöckli, PhD

Psychotherapeutic practice

Dr. Phil Stöckli, ph.D.

Gemeindestrasse 26 | 8032 Zürich

Tel. 076 282 8885

Learn more about my specializations: Gestalt therapy Trauma therapy Addiction therapy Expat issues High sensitivity (HSP) EMDR NARM
Founder Dr. Francine Shapiro
EMDR “buzzies”

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Psychotherapeutic practice

Dr. Phil Stöckli , ph.D.

Gemeindestr. 26 | 8032 Zürich

Tel. 076 282 8885

Practice for Psychotherapy Dr. Phil Stöckli, PhD
EMDR - eye movement desensitization & reprocessing
What is EMDR? EMDR    stands    for    "Eye    Movement    Desensitization    and Reprocessing"    and    was    discovered    between    1987    and 1989    by    the    American    Psychologist Dr.    Francine    Shapiro    developed    for the   treatment   of   trauma.   She   found out      that      rapid      (horizontal)      eye movement   triggers   the   processing   of memory    in    the    brain.    What    sounds simple     at     first     is     a     complex     and comprehensive                Psychotherapy method,   which   requires   several   years   of   training,   and   to which    currently    only    recognized    Psychotherapists    are admitted. When    I    first    heard    of    the    incredible    healing    effects    of EMDR   ( example   #1 ,   #2 )   I   became   suspicious   and   thought it    was    unserious    and    unscientific.    Meanwhile,    I    am convinced   that   EMDR   is   a   very   effective   therapy   method and    a    powerful    tool    to    speed    up    Psychotherapeutic processes. It works with most people. History In    1987,    Shapiro    accidentally discovered   the   effects   of   eye movements.      She      had      just received    a    difficult    diagnosis herself   and   went   for   a   walk   in the   hospital   park   to   digest   the news.    She    moved    her    eyes (randomly)   quickly   back   and   forth   and   ten   minutes   later, her   distress   suddenly   had   disappeared.   Shapiro   was   so fascinated   by   this   event,   that   she   developed   EMDR   in   the following   years.   Later,   Shapiro   and   colleagues   found   that the   effect   can   not   be   caused   solely   by   eye   movements, but   rather   by   bilateral   stimulation .   But   by   that   time,   the name   EMDR   has   already   been   established   and   so   that they   decided   to   keep   it.   When   you   do   EMDR   today,   you have   a   choice   to   do   it   using   eye   movements,   alternating sounds    (with    headphones)    or    with    a    vibrating    device ("EMDR Buzzies"with alternating vibrations, see picture). How does it work? Interestingly, the efficacy is well documented, but it is not completely understood how and why EMDR works. There are, however, some hypotheses: The bilateral stimulation boosts the processing of memories, similar to REM sleep EMDR triggers an orientation reaction, leading directly to desensitization and processing of traumatic memory EMDR promotes bilateral data exchange between the two sides of the brain so that "stuck" memories can be processed. EMDR “deblocks” the Information processing system in the central nervous system (CNS). Due to the sensory overload during a traumatic situation, this system is thought to be partially blocked with PTSD patients. Slow vs. fast stimulation With      slow      stimulation,      existing      phenomena      are intensified   or   anchored.   Note   that   these   effects   are   only temporary.   This   technique   will   be   used   during   a   first   ‘trial session’     (so     called     absorption     technique )     or     at     the conclusion      of      a      successful      EMDR      session.      Fast stimulation,     however,     is     used     for     the     actual     EMDR treatment.   Memories   are   processd   deeply   and   the   effects are permanent. Effectiveness The   EMDR   method   has   been   accepted   as   an   effective   and time-efficient      treatment      for      post-traumatic      stress disorder.   By   now,   almost   every   civilized   country   has   its own   EMDR   training   center.   Furthermore,   EMDR   is   being adapted   successfully   for   other   Psychiatric   disorders.   In the    30    years    of    its    existence,    EMDR    has    become    the therapeutic     method     with     the     most     controlled     and uncontrolled   therapeutic   trials   for   the   treatment   of   PTSD. [ Current     state     of     EMDR     research ]     The     effects     are persistent   and   stand   out   clearly   from   placebo   effects.   A person   with   a   single   trauma   (and   no   other   preconditions) might    only    need    a    few    sessions    (10    or    so)    of    EMDR treatment   until   they   feel   significantly   better.   For   a   person suffering   from   early   or   repeated   traumatization,   it   will take   takes   substantially   longer.   The   period   of   stabilization (before   you   can   confront   any   trauma   at   all)   might   take weeks to years. Which problems can EMDR be used for? Monotrauma     (single     traumatic     event)     such     as accidents, catastrophic events Complex   trauma   (early   or   repeated   traumatization) such   as   physical,   emotional   and   sexual   abuse,   war experiences, etc. Attachment issues / Developmental Trauma Depression Anxiety, panic attacks, phobia ADHD Asperger syndrome Obsessive-compulsive disorder Mourning processes What does an EMDR treatment look like? The   treatement   can   be   divided   in   8   phases.   In   the   best case    scenario,    you    can    start    processing    the    difficult memories   after   a   few   sessions.   These   are   the   8   phases which every EMDR treatment should contain: 1. Thorough medical history - Especially stressful or traumatic events - Diagnosis, possibly trauma assessment - Indication und treatment plan 2. Preparation - this phase might take between a few sessions and years! - In-depth information about the treatment - Checking / acquiring strategies for emotion regulation - Acquiring stabilizing techniques, getting in touch with   your body an feelings - Trial session with positive memories (so called  Absorption-technique), with slow bilateral stmulation 3. Assessment of one chosen memory (image, thoughts, feelings, distress level, body sensations) 4. Desensitization / Reprossessing with fast bilateral stimulation, until distress is gone 5. Installation of positive thoughts / body sensations with slow bilateral stimulation 6. Body scan 7.   Closure   -   The   patient   must   be   returned   to   a   state   of equilibrium    at    the    end    of    each    session,    regardless    of whether reprocessing is complete.  8.     Reevaluation     and     treatment     planning     in     the following session The   actual   processing   of   the   memories   takes   place   in   a 60-90 minute session (phases 3-7). Note :   Instead   of   the   tiring   eye   movements,   EMDR   can   be performed   using   a   vibrating   device   (EMDR   ”buzzies”,   see picture above). Preconditions for a EMDR treatment Patient should ideally be in a relatively stable phase of life, meaning: currently no profound life events such as change of residence, final exam, separation / divorce, pregnancy, child birth, withdrawal treatment, etc. Sufficient self-regulation strategies (since treatment is performed on an outpatient basis) No ongoing abusive relationship ADHD patients need to be on medication Exclusion criteria: psychosis, epilepsy, acute suicidality, permanent drug use, permanent use of benzodiazepines Links and literature Great animation by the National Center for PTSD - Video (2.54) Dr. Leeds explains how EMDR works  Video (4.43) Interview with Dr. Francine Shapiro Video (8.20) Dr. Francine Shapiro explains EMDR Video (3.59) Historic document of Dr. Francine Shapiro talking about her discovery Old video (2.54) Old video (2.51) Good article pdf  FAQ, more scientific Text  FAQ, less scientific Text Overview current research
Learn more about my specializations: Gestalt Therapy Trauma therapy Addiction therapy Expat issues High sensitivity (HSP) EMDR NARM